Marrakesh Treaty

Marrakesh Treaty Ratification and Implementation Campaign

Reading is a human right, but currently not all people can access books or other reading materials. Over 90% of all published materials cannot be read by blind or print-disabled people, leading to a “book famine.” We need to be able to reproduce published materials into accessible formats, such as Braille, large print, and audio editions, to address the book famine, however, current copyright rules within most countries prevents this. Working with World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the WBU led the international campaign to develop the Marrakesh Treaty that would address the book famine (official treaty name: the Marrakesh​Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities). The Marrakesh Treaty was signed in Morocco on 28 June 2013. To date the following countries are in Accession or Ratified the Treaty: India, El Salvador, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Mali, Paraguay, Singapore, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, the Republic of Korea, Australia, Brazil, Peru, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Israel, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Canada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Tunisia, Botswana, Sri Lanka, Liberia, Panama, Honduras, Kyrgyzstan, Kenya, Malaw​i, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Costa Rica, Russia, Moldova, Uganda​, Lesotho, Ghana, Dominican Republic, Jordan, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Japan, Qatar, European Union (EU Countries), Belize, Saudi Arabia​, Philippines​, Thailand, United States, the Marshall Islands​, Cape Verde, Bolivia, Cook Islands, Morocco, Tajikistan, Zimbabwe, Venezuela, New Zealand,Trinidad and Tobago, Indonesia, Tanzania, Switzerland, Serbia, Nicaragua, Vanuatu,San Marino, Belarus, Saint Lucia, Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Turkmenistan and Ethiopia.

A full list of countries that have ratified the treaty, including dates of ratification and enforcement, is available on the WIPO website.​

More than 90% of all published material is not accessible to the blind or partially sighted. We need to be able to produce these materials in accessible formats, such as Braille, large print or audio editions, but the current copyright rules do not allow this.

This limits the number of books to which blind students can have access to further their studies and training WBU has led the international campaign in partnership with WIPO to achieve the development of the Marrakesh Treaty and put an end to the current thirst for books. This treaty is also available to read or download from our Resources section or from the WIPO website:

The Marrakesh Treaty entered into force on September 30th, 2016, exactly three months after it reached 20 ratifying countries, which triggered its entry into force. Ratifying countries and their citizens can now benefit from the increase in accessible materials through cross-border sharing and the increased production of books under the Treaty’s provisions. However, we want every blind and print disabled person in every country to benefit from this Treaty, thus, our focus is now on ensuring that every country in the world ratifies the Treaty and implements it effectively in order for the book famine to finally end.

We are also a part of the Accessible Books Consortium. Follow this link to their website to learn more about how they will help countries and organizations promote and facilitate the implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty now that it has come into force: ​

Useful links and resources on the Marrakesh Treaty:

The WBU has produced a “Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty,” which was published by Oxford U​niversity Press. The Guide is intended to help governments of ratifying countries as they face a variety of legal and policy choices when deciding how to incorporate the Marrakesh Treaty into their national legal systems. These decisions will determine whether the Treaty realizes its overarching objective – to enhance the human rights of print-disabled persons by facilitating their ability to create, read and share books and other cultural materials in accessible formats. It will also be a useful recourse for disability rights organizations and other civil society groups and print disabled individuals themselves when advocating for the ratification and implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty. For more information and for a downloadable copy of the Guide, please visit our Guide to the Marrakesh Treaty page.

This document summarizes the Treaty: The Treaty of Marrakesh WBU explanation July 2013.  Under the page labelled WIPO Marrakesh Treaty, find the full wording of the treaty and it can be downloaded as a Word doc or a PDF. We have also prepared a FAQ sheet on the Marrakesh Treaty. You can download the FAQs here: Marrakesh Treaty – WBU FAQ sheet-Updated Jan 2018-EN

The organization Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), which was an active participant during the negotiations at WIPO that led to the adoption of the Treaty and they are now advocating for the Treaty’s ratification and implementation into national law, has compiled a Marrakesh Treaty Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) document with information on a set of issues/questions that commonly arise concerning the process and substance of ratification and implementation. The FAQs cover the process of joining the treaty, budgetary implications of ratification, and the role of authorized entities. You can download the FAQs here: EIFL – Marrakesh Treaty FAQs

WBU Asia-Pacific​ and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Bangkok Regional Hub have produced a report titled `Our Right to Knowledge: Legal Reviews for the Ratification of the Marrakesh Treaty for persons with print disabilities in Asia and the Pacific. You can download it on the UNDP website

Video Resources
WBU Past President and Chair of our Right to Read Campaign, Maryanne Diamond did a TED talk in Geneva on the Right to Read and the Marrakesh Treaty, which is available on YouTube.

WIPO produced a high quality video which explains the Treaty and its role in helping to end the book famine. You can access the video on WIPO’s YouTube page​.

WIPO also produced dozens of high quality videos interviewing key people from all of the stakeholder groups, including WBU, that have fought for the Marrakesh Treaty, including from the WBU, libraries, government and rights holders. You can access the videos by the following link for WIPO’s “Books for Blind” Marrakesh Treaty YouTube Playlist.

A video (in Italian) produced by our Italian member, the Italian Union of the Blind and Partially Sighted, explains the Marrakesh Treaty process and why the treaty is so important for blind people. The video was made possible thanks to a grant from the Open Society Institute Foundation.
Here is the link:

You can also download and print our WBU Marrakesh bookmark ENG

Listed below are the interventions from the Social Forum and the WIPO Marrakesh Assembly, 2016:

The Social Forum is a three-day event, convened annually by the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva.
This meeting provides a unique space for interactive dialogue between civil society actors, representatives of UN Member States, and intergovernmental organizations. This year, the Social Forum was focused on the theme of the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), during which, WBU representatives w​ere in attendance and raised the importance of ratifying and implementing the Marrakesh Treaty. To read more about the Social Forum in full, click here.

The 1st Marrakesh Assembly was held this year, on October 5th, during the 56th Session of the WIPO General Assembly and it included the 22 countries that had already ratified the Treaty. WBU representatives attended the Assembly and made interventions (listed above). Additionally, during this meeting, three more countries acceded to​ the Treaty: Botswana, Sri Lanka and Liberia.

For Marrakesh Assembly highlights, click here. You can also watch videos from the Assembly, as part of WIPO’s

Regional Resources:

WBU- Asia Pacific

European Blind Union

Implementing the Marrakesh Treaty – A practical guide for librarians

EIFL co-launched a new practical guide to the Marrakesh Treaty for persons with print disabilities during the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) World Library and Information Congress that took place in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 2018.

The new guide, titled ‘Getting Started. Implementing the Marrakesh Treaty for persons with print disabilities. A practical guide for librarians’, is mainly aimed at librarians in countries that have joined the Marrakesh Treaty, and where national implementation is completed or advanced.​ Download full text below.

WBU Statement on Marrakesh Treaty to CRPD Committee.14Aug.2017

How you can help?

The countries that have signed on to the treaty are listed on the WIPO web page. If your country is listed that is great news; however, they still need to ratify the treaty into law for the conditions of the treaty to apply in your country.

If your country has not signed or ratified the treaty, ask your government representatives why they are not supporting your Right to Read. We have created a letter that others can use to encourage their government to ratify the treaty: WBU LETTER TO ALL GOVERNMENTS

You can also speak to your government representative, member of parliament, or congress about the book famine and how it affects your ability to enjoy literary works. When one is denied the ability to read, one is cut off from their own culture. Let us know of the work you are doing in your country in your efforts to advance accessibility and gain greater access to books and literature in braille, large print or audio. Follow our progress on Twitter: @blindunion​ #MarrakeshTreaty

The Marrakesh Treaty Ratification and Implementation Campaign was supported (in part) by a grant from the Open Society Foundations.

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